15:00 - 17:00



Programme 2nd Year

Aldous Huxley had a strong interest in psychology, and his views on the subject were influenced by his own experiences, intellectual pursuits, and observations of the human condition. While he was not a professional psychologist, Huxley engaged with psychological ideas and incorporated them into his writings and philosophical explorations in several ways:

  • Psychological Themes in Literature
    Huxley often used psychological themes and insights in his novels and essays. He was interested in the inner lives of his characters and explored their thoughts, emotions, and motivations. His works frequently delve into the complexities of human psychology, including the impact of societal conditioning and the struggle for individual identity.
  • Psychedelics and Consciousness
    Huxley was a proponent of the use of psychedelic substances, such as mescaline and LSD, as a means of exploring altered states of consciousness. His famous essay “The Doors of Perception” describes his experiences with mescaline and his belief in the potential of psychedelics to reveal profound aspects of the mind and reality. He saw these substances as tools for expanding human consciousness and gaining insight into the nature of perception and existence.
  • Behaviorism and Conditioning
    Huxley’s novel “Brave New World” reflects his understanding of behaviorism and psychological conditioning. In the book, the society is depicted as using conditioning techniques to control and manipulate the behavior and beliefs of its citizens. This exploration of behavioral psychology serves as a critique of the dangers of using psychology for social control and conformity.
  • Self-Exploration and Mysticism
    Huxley was interested in the intersection of psychology and mysticism. He explored the idea that individuals could achieve higher states of consciousness and self-realization through practices like meditation and introspection. His book “The Perennial Philosophy” delves into the spiritual and psychological dimensions of human experience and draws connections between various mystical traditions and psychological insights.
  • Human Potential and Self-Actualization
    Huxley believed in the potential for individuals to reach higher levels of self-actualization and personal growth. He was interested in psychology’s role in helping individuals understand themselves better and fulfill their potential. This theme is evident in his novel “Island“, where he envisions a society that promotes personal growth and psychological well-being.

In summary, Aldous Huxley’s thoughts on psychology encompassed a wide range of topics, including the exploration of human consciousness, the role of conditioning in society, the use of psychedelics for self-discovery, and the relationship between psychology and spirituality. His works reflect his fascination with the complexities of the human mind and the quest for deeper understanding of the self and the world.


Reading for next lecture

Relevant essays volumes IV-VI


Book list

Complete Essays Volume IV

(Ivan R. Dee)
In this fourth installment of a planned six-volume collection, Aldous Huxley expresses profound concerns regarding the trajectory of history during the late 1930s, a period marked by the looming specter of a second global war. Throughout this volume, many of his essays delve into his enduring fascination with popular culture’s conventions, as well as the interplay between philosophy, science, and history, particularly in relation to their influence on developments in the realms of art and politics. Yet, his overarching preoccupations oscillate between the realms of empirical science and the intricate tapestry of social history on one hand, and a relentless quest for an absolute truth that transcends them both.

Within these pages, Huxley’s critical examination extends to the political landscape and the prevailing ideologies of fascism and capitalism, all the while intertwining with his pursuit of a foundational truth in a world characterized by constant change and diversity. Notably, he embraced a brand of political pacifism that intersected with a growing attraction to religious quietism and mysticism. Simultaneously, he undertook a concerted effort to reconcile mystical experiences with contemporary theories of physics and the philosophy of science.

At their zenith, Huxley’s essays represent some of the most exceptional examples of the genre in modern literature. This collection is deemed a remarkable publishing event, distinguished by its meticulous production and authoritative editing.

Complete Essays Volume V

(Ivan R. Dee)
Within this penultimate volume, Huxley persists in his examination of the place of science and technology within contemporary society. Simultaneously, he embarks on a quest for the ultimate and definitive Truth that could serve as the bedrock for his burgeoning fascination with religious mysticism. It is within this period that his philosophy of history attains its conclusive shape and substance.

In their most refined manifestations, Huxley’s essays continue to shine as exemplary instances of the genre within modern literature.

Complete Essays Volume VI

(Ivan R. Dee)
In this culminating and final volume of Huxley’s essays, we witness the culmination of what critics have hailed as “an extraordinary publishing achievement, meticulously crafted and expertly curated.” Within these pages, Huxley offers his ultimate evaluation of contemporary society. Returning to the themes that underpinned his dystopian masterpiece, “Brave New World,” he delves into a wide spectrum of contemporary subjects, ranging from ecology, sociobiology, and psychology to politics, history, and religion. His deep-seated concerns about the challenges posed by modernity permeate his writings.

This volume also features Huxley’s ultimate contemplation on the intersection of art and religion in “Shakespeare and Religion,” along with the inclusion of two recently discovered essays on science, technology, and the complexities of “modern life.” Volume VI additionally stands as a notable entry into Huxley’s engagement with the C. P. Snow/F. R. Leavis controversy surrounding the “two cultures.” During the early 1960s, the relationship between science and the humanities was a fiercely debated topic, drawing the participation of luminaries such as Lionel Trilling and scientists like J. Robert Oppenheimer. Huxley’s response to this discourse was “Literature and Science,” his final book, which serves as a summative expression of his theories on art and culture.

As one of the last prominent public intellectuals of the modernist era, Huxley’s essays present a reframing of modern cultural history in all its multifaceted dimensions.


Huxley Centre
Huxley Centre
Seehofstrasse 6, 8006 Zürich, 4th floor


Robin Hull, lic.phil. Dip RSA
Robin Hull, lic.phil. Dip RSA

Huxley Centre / Hull's School


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